lundi 12 janvier 2009

Alternative Currencies Grow in Popularity. Times magazine with CNN

Alternative Currencies Grow in Popularity

By Judith D. Schwartz Sunday, Dec. 14, 2008

alternative currency berkshares
Photo Illustration by Darren McCollester / Getty

Most of us take for granted that those rectangular green slips of paper we keep in our wallets are inviolable: the physical embodiment of value. But alternative forms of money have a long history and appear to be growing in popularity. It's not merely barter or primitive means of exchange like seashells or beads. Beneath the financial radar, in hip U.S. towns or South African townships, in shops, markets and even banks, people throughout the world are exchanging goods and services via thousands of currency types that look nothing like official tender.

Alternative means of trade often surface during tough economic times. "When money gets dried up and there are still needs to be met in society, people come up with creative ways to meet those needs," says Peter North, a senior lecturer in geography at the University of Liverpool and the author of two books on the subject. He refers to the "scrips" issued in the U.S. and Europe during the Great Depression that kept money flowing and the massive barter exchanges involving millions of people that emerged amid runaway inflation in Argentina in 2000. "People were kept from starving [this way]," he says. (Find out 10 things to do with your money.)

Closer to home, "Ithaca Hours," with a livable hourly wage as the standard, were launched during the 1991 recession to sustain the economy in Ithaca, N.Y., and stem the loss of jobs. Hours, which are legal and taxable, circulate within the community, moving from local shop to local artisan and back, rather than leaking out into the larger monetary system. The logo on the Hour reads "In Ithaca We Trust."

Alternative (or "complementary") currencies range from quaint to robust, simple to high tech. There are Greens from the Lettuce Patch Bank at the Dancing Rabbit Ecovillage in rural northeastern Missouri. In western Massachusetts one finds fine-artist-designed BerkShares, which are convertible to U.S. dollars. More than $2 million in BerkShares have been issued through the 12 branches of five local banks, according to Susan Witt, executive director of the E.F. Schumacher Society, the nonprofit behind the currency. And in South Africa, proprietary software keeps track of Community Exchange System (CES) Talents; one ambitious plan is to make Khayelitsha, a vast, desolate township of perhaps 1 million inhabitants near Cape Town, a self-sustaining community.

An alternative currency is generally used in conjunction with conventional money; one may use local currency at the farmers' market and regular greenbacks at the supermarket. "It doesn't try in any way to replace cash," says Christoph Hensch, a Swiss national and former banker living in Christchurch, New Zealand. Rather, it offers a way "for people to share and redeem value they have in the community." He says the currencies are most useful in geographical areas or social sectors where money doesn't flow sufficiently, citing, for example, New Zealand's Golden Bay, which is so remote that it sometimes nearly functions as its own economy.

Advocates of alternative currencies say they are a means of empowerment for those languishing on the margins of fiscal life, granting economic agency to people like the elderly, the disabled or the underemployed, who have little opportunity to earn money. For example, in some systems one can "bank" Time Dollars for tasks like child care and changing motor oil. It's not whether you're employed or what financial assets you have that matter, says Les Squires, a consultant on social-networking software who has been working with groups developing alternative currencies. Each person has "value" that is "exchangeable" on the basis of time spent or a given task.

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Alternative currency comes in many forms. In addition to time-banking, there are Local Exchange Trading Systems (LETS), systems of mutual credit that vary by location. This model was developed by Michael Linton in Canada, though it seems to have taken off mostly in the British Isles; an estimated 40,000 people in the U.K. use these for at least some transactions. (See TIME's top 10 everything of 2008.)

Similarly, the CES is an online money and banking system and trading marketplace that tracks credits and debits. While LETS function as clubs that set their own guidelines, CES is administered through an online program that connects local groups to create a global network. The CES website points to more than 100 exchanges in 15 countries. Squires says the Internet has made alternative forms of exchange more viable, as databases can keep account of credits. In the rarefied world of monetary theory, think tanks are abuzz with ideas about future forms of money. One visionary, Jean-Francois Noubel, co-founder of AOL-France, foresees "millions of free currencies circulating on the Net and through our cell phones" as money follows the distribution path that media have over the past decade. Bernard Lietaer, a Belgian economist and author who helped develop the euro, has proposed the Terra, a transnational currency backed by established commodities that would coexist with conventional notes, the monetary equivalent of Esperanto.

In recent years, the impetus for alternative currencies in established economies has stemmed in part from localization movements. Periodically ditching the dollar (or the pound or the yen) in favor of homegrown currency doesn't merely fortify the local economy; it also builds community. People have a stake in their neighbor's well-being because that neighbor represents both market and supply chain. Some argue that such transactions are more secure than others because knowing the person you're dealing with, and his family and friends, serves as a kind of social collateral.

The use of BerkShares has helped solidify local ties, says Witt. "It's cash, so you have to pay your bills by walking into the store or dentist's office." Local pride does have its challenges, however. In September the town of Lewes in Sussex, England, issued the Lewes Pound — complete with a special-edition beer from Harvey's, a local brewery, to celebrate the introduction. There was an immediate run on the currency, limiting its circulation; Lewes Pounds were going for 35 pounds sterling on eBay. The organizers quickly went back to press and dealt with the situation. As Witt is the first to say, "Local currencies are not easy."

Some are moved to create currencies for environmental reasons: they minimize the use of energy. With diminishing oil supplies, "we will not be able to move goods around the world as cheaply," says North. One strategy, he says, is to produce more locally, and a way to facilitate that is through local currency. This was one inspiration for the Lewes Pound and for the Totnes Pound in Devon, England. Both towns are part of the Transition Town movement, which seeks creative, upbeat, community-based approaches to dealing with climate change and diminished oil reserves.

Paper-money currencies, like BerkShares or the Lewes or Totnes Pound, slip fairly seamlessly into the national economy; their use is taxed like ordinary money. More abstract exchanges are a bit more complicated to deal with. But the tax concern is not insurmountable. "If you use local currency for your main income-generating activity, you must pay income tax," says Hensch, who consults in complementary currencies. Likewise, if you have a business, you'll pay sales tax on any local currency — in New Zealand, that would be Green Dollars, part of LETS — you bring in. But if you trade in "neighborhood help," like lawn-mowing, that would not be taxed.

The rules vary from country to country. In the U.S., any business transaction must be recorded and reported to the IRS; tax levies apply as if the trade were made in cash. As Squires puts it, professional services are subject to income tax, but for noncommercial transactions, barter rules hold. "If I bake a cake for you, that's not a taxable event," he says.

Andrew Rose, Bernard T. Rocca Professor of International Trade at the Haas School of Business at the University of California, Berkeley, sees local currencies as limited by their unwieldiness. "Money is primarily just a convenience for enabling exchanges between two parties. The more widely accepted, the more convenient it is," he says. If you need to use different currencies in different locations, the money then becomes less convenient.

Do large financial institutions have anything to fear from the use of alternative currencies? Not at all, says Rose. "It's got to be so tiny. It has no effect at all," he says. Besides, he notes, the Fed doesn't care about currency or even the number of bills circulating in the economy. "The Fed cares about monetary policy and deal[s] with that in different ways."


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How to do ?


Wir began with seven swiss citizen

example of legal...

                                            adopted ( dated)

                                            Association not for Profit


1. Name


..... a Society (hereinafter "Society /

Social Credit") according to the provisions of art 60 and al. of Swiss Civil Code.


2. Domicile


The local head office of the Social Credit will be located in ...................

And all activities will be begin in the area of .................


3. Objects


The objects for which the Social Credit is established are as follows:


(A) To protect and promote the common interests of its members;


(B) To promote, study, advance and protect trading, commercial, financial and

manufacturing interests and relations, as a financial aid to poor people, without any interests.

A Local Social Credit Bank is a business owned and controlled by the people who use its services. They

finance and operate the business or service for their mutual benefit. By working together, they

can reach an objective that would be unattainable if acting alone.

The purpose of the Local Social Credit Bank is to provide greater benefits to the members such as

increasing individual income or enhancing a member's way of living by providing important needed

services. The Local Social Credit Bank, for instance, may be the vehicle to obtaining improved markets or

providing sources of supplies or other services otherwise unavailable if members acted alone.


Distinctive Features


In many respects, Local Social Credit Banks resemble other businesses. They have similar physical

facilities, perform similar functions, and must follow sound business practices. They usually

incorporate under State laws and require bylaws and other necessary legal papers. Members elect a

board of directors to represent their interests. The board sets policy and hires a manager to run

the Local Social Credit Bank's day-to-day business.

Even though Local Social Credit Banks are similar to many other businesses, they are distinctively

different. Some differences are found in the Local Social Credit Bank's purpose, ownership, control, and

distribution of benefits. Local Social Credit Banks follow three principles that define or identify their

distinctive characteristics:


user-owned, user-controlled, and user-benefited.


The user-owned principle means the people who own and finance the Local Social Credit Bank are those who use it. "Use" usually means buying supplies, marketing products, or using services of the

Local Social Credit Bank business.

Members finance the Local Social Credit Bank through different methods: 1) by a direct contribution

through a membership fee or investment; 2) by an agreement to withhold a portion of net

earnings (profit); or 3) by assessments based on units of product sold or purchased 4) By local money creation 5) By distribution of the social dividend 6) By the compensated discount .

Sharing of the profits help finance the Local Social Credit Bank's operations.

The user-controlled principle (also called democratic control) says those who use the

Local Social Credit Bank also control it by electing a board of directors and voting on major organizational

issues. This is done on a one-member, one-vote basis.

The user-benefited principle says that the Local Social Credit Bank's sole purpose is to provide and

distribute benefits to members on the basis of their use. Members unite in a Local Social Credit Bank to

receive services otherwise not available, to purchase quality supplies, to increase market

access, or for other mutually beneficial reasons. Members also benefit from distribution of net

earnings or profit based on the individual's business volume with the Local Social Credit Bank.

To operate under these distinctive principles, an important practice, particularly for

new Local Social Credit Banks, is to conduct continuing member education. This is especially important for attracting and recruiting new members. It is also necessary because the Local Social Credit Bank's membershipsince conception, continually changes. Older members retire and new ones join.

Keeping owners informed is an important practice for any business, but vital in a

Local Social Credit Bank for at least three reasons:


(1) The democratic control principle, exercised through majority rule, requires that

the entire ownership (members) be informed and involved to assure that enlightened

decisions are made;


(2) Members must indicate their needs and accept the accompanying financial

responsibilities before the Local Social Credit Bank can fulfill those needs; and


(3) Some people are not familiar with the Local Social Credit Bank form of business. The educational

system contains little, if any, information about Local Social Credit Banks.

So, the Local Social Credit Bank, itself, must become the educational institution.


All members sign a declaration not to be a member of any secret society and pay a fine of             Pesos if the fact is proven



To help in the attainment of these objects, but not in limitation of them, the Social Credit

may inter alia:


* Collect and disseminate statistical and other information relating to the aforesaid



* Maintain the necessary contacts relating to the aforesaid interests with appropriate

government or trade authorities and bodies;


* Promote, support or oppose legislative or other measures affecting the aforesaid



* Undertake by arbitration the settlement of disputes arising out of trading,

commercial, financial or manufacturing questions submitted to its decision;


* Institute through appropriate channels legal or other proceedings for the protection

of any commercial interests in the local community, provided that, and so far as, no breach be committed of the rules of

law against maintenance or champerty, if and so far as such rules of law are

applicable in the country in which such proceedings are instituted;


* Supply, without guarantee, information respecting the standing of companies, firms

and persons in the local community;


* Give advice and assistance to its Members and others in establishing commercial

connections, finding agents and evaluating trade conditions in the

The local community;


* Sell, lease, mortgage or dispose of or otherwise deal with all or any part of the

property of the Social Credit without any interest rate if applicable;


* Do any other lawful things as may be conducive to the extension of any

trade, commerce, finance, manufacturing or economic interests or incidental to the

attainment of any or all of the above objects.


4. Membership


4.01 The Social Credit shall consist of members who may be:


(a) Individual since conception;


(b) Companies or corporations incorporated in, or firms with a place in RP.


(c) Companies or corporations incorporated in, or firms with a place of business in ,

the   village ("The village");


(d) Any other persons, partnerships, companies or corporations which the Council of

the Social Credit, having regard to the interest and objects of the Social Credit, shall deem

suitable for membership. For the purpose of registration, the number of Members of

the Social Credit is declared as being unlimited.


4.02 The amount of the annual subscription of members as well as the categories of

membership shall be determined by the Council from time to time by regulations

issued by it but subject to such regulations being ratified by the next General Meeting

of the Social Credit, which may also amend the regulations being proposed and such

amended regulations will be effective from the commencement of the following

calendar year. Should the General Meeting or any continuation thereof, fail to ratify

such regulations, they shall cease to have effect from the commencement of the

following calendar year. Any regulations may also prescribe any additional amounts

to be due from members for late payment of subscriptions and reductions of

subscriptions as it may determine.


Subscriptions for the current year are payable no later than January in each year but

the first subscription of a Member admitted during the year shall be limited to a

proportion of the full year calculated as from commencement of the quarter

immediately preceding his election. The liability of each Member to the Social Credit and

to third parties is limited to his subscriptions due hereunder.


The Council shall also be entitled to nominate members to be patrons of the

Social Credit on conditions as it considers appropriate

For the purposes hereof, an "Individual Asset Member" shall be a person with a

teaching qualification in languages either being self-employed or working for a small

enterprise (nor more than 5 employees) offering language tuition and related

services, or a teacher employed by a school which is not exclusively a language

school. Whether a Member is eligible to be considered as an Individual ASSET

Member shall be determined by the President (or in his absence or incapacity a Vice

President) whose decision shall be final".


Notwithstanding the foregoing or the provisions of Article 8.01 (g) below, the Council

shall have the authority by resolution to introduce a subscription rate for Individual

Members and a "small business" subscription for Ordinary Members at a rate below

the amount stated above and under conditions as the Council may consider



4.03 A candidate for election shall sign a written application for election and an

agreement to be bound, if elected, by the Articles of Association. The application

shall be brought before the Council at their next or subsequent meeting, when a

majority of the Members of the Council then present or represented may admit the

candidate as a Member. Such admission, together with submission of an application

for membership and payment of the subscription, shall constitute membership and

an agreement to be bound by these Articles of Association. The Executive Director

shall keep a list of all members at the Social Credit's head office.


4.04 A Member must give written notice to the Social Credit at its Head office care of its

Executive Director before the end of December in any year of his wish to retire, or he

will be liable for his subscription for the ensuing year. A Member whose subscription

is in arrears, shall not be entitled to vote on any questions, and if his subscription

remains unpaid on the 30th June, all privileges of membership will be forfeited until

payment is made, and his name may be posted in an arrears list in the offices of the

Social Credit; but the arrears will still be a debt due to and recoverable by the Social Credit.


4.05 A majority of Members present and voting at an Annual or Special General

Meeting of the Social Credit may by resolution expel any Member whose conduct in their

opinion renders him unfit to be a Member of the Social Credit. Any such person shall

from the passing of such resolution cease to be a Member of the Social Credit, provided

that seven days' notice at least shall be given to such Member of the intention to

propose such a resolution and he shall be given an opportunity of being present at

the Meeting at which such resolution is proposed, and being heard in his defense.


4.06 The Council may admit to honorary life membership of the Social Credit individuals

distinguished in statesmanship, diplomacy, commerce, or finance, who shall not be

required to sign the application mentioned above, or to pay any subscription.

Notwithstanding the foregoing, honorary Members shall have all rights as Members

as set out herein.



5. Application of resources


(A) The income and property of the Social Credit, whensoever derived, shall be applied

solely towards the promotion of the objects of the Social Credit as set forth herein; and

no portion hereof shall be paid or transferred directly or indirectly, by way of dividend,

bonus or otherwise, to the members of the Social Credit, provided that nothing herein

shall prevent the payment, in good faith, of reasonable and proper remuneration to

any officer or servant of the Social Credit, or to any Member of the Soc. Credit in return for

any services actually rendered to the Social Credit, nor prevent any payment of interest at

any rate ( according to Vix Pervenit) or reasonable and proper rent for premises demised

or let by any Member to the Social Credit; and provided that a member of the Council of

the Social Credit may be appointed to any salaried office of the Social Credit or any office of

the Social Credit paid by fees, and that in such event remuneration or other benefit in

money or money's worth may be given by the Social Credit to any Member of such

Council, and Members shall be entitled to repayment of out-of-pocket expenses and

A share on the profits aforesaid on money lent or reasonable and proper rent for

premises demised or let to the Social Credit.


(B) If upon the winding up or dissolution of the Social Credit, there remains, after the

satisfaction of all its debts and liabilities, any property whatsoever, the same shall

not be paid to or distributed among the Members of the Social Credit, but shall be given

or transferred to some other Any or Swiss Institution or Institutions having objects

similar to the objects of the Social Credit, and which shall prohibit the distribution of its

or their income and property amongst its or their members, to an extent at least as

great as is imposed on the Social Credit under and by virtue of Clause 5 hereof, such

Institution or Institutions to be determined by the Members of the Social Credit at or

before the time of dissolution, and if and so far as effect cannot be given to the

aforesaid provision, then to some Any or Swiss charitable object.


6. Audit


At least once every year the accounts shall be examined by the electedAuditors who will give their opinion on the financial statements on the compliance of

the accounts. The Auditors' report shall be open to inspection at the

Social Credit's Head office during the three week period prior to the Annual General

Meeting of the Social Credit.

7. Council


7.01 The business of the Social Credit shall be managed by a Council who shall either

be Members of the Social Credit or the nominated representative of a company

partnership or corporation which is a Member. Notwithstanding any such nomination

they shall act on the Council in an individual capacity. The Members of the Council

shall be elected at an Annual General Meeting of the Social Credit, and they shall hold

office until the third Annual General Meeting after their election. Council Members

shall use their best efforts to attend meetings of the Council.


7.02 At the Annual General Meeting of the Social Credit in each year the Members of the

Council whose office has expired shall retire but shall be eligible for re-election. The

Council shall give at least 10 days' notice before the Annual General Meeting of the

names of the Members so retiring and of the fact that they are eligible for re-election.

Such notice shall be given in the Social Credit Bulletin, or such other manner as notices

are by these Articles of Association authorized to be given.


7.03 All Members have the right of nominating candidates for election as Members of

the Council. Candidates must be nominated at least 21 days before the Annual

General Meeting, and their names must be notified to Members by publication in the

issue of the Bulletin appearing before the date of meeting, or by notice given in

manner authorized by these Articles, and be posted on the notice board at the

Social Credit's Head office.


7.04 The Council shall elect from its own body by ballot or otherwise as they may

determine, a President, Vice-Presidents as required, and an Honorary Treasurer,

who are herein called "the officers" of the Social Credit. Each officer shall have a term of

office of three years or such other term as the Council shall, from time to time,

decide. Each officer shall be eligible for re-election. The President shall also be

entitled to appoint an officer, after consultation with the Steering Committee, provided

that such appointee shall be submitted to the Council for election at the next Council

meeting. Councilors wishing to be considered for election as an officer shall be

proposed and seconded by other Councilors giving written notice to the President

not less than 45 days prior to the next Council meeting due to consider election of

officers. Candidates shall not be entitled to vote for themselves. The Council shall

otherwise establish rules, from time to time as it considers appropriate, for the

conduct of elections, failing which the procedures shall be laid down by the Steering

Committee .


7.05 The Council shall meet at least twice a month. Members of the Council shall

receive at least two days' notice of such meeting. Meetings of the Council shall be

presided over by the President or by a Vice-President, or, in their absence, by one of

the Council, who shall be elected Chairman for the day. The President only shall

have a casting vote as well as an original vote. Three Members of the Council (taking

into account proxies and alternates) shall form a quorum. At meetings of the Council

voting by proxy (as provided below) or letter shall be permitted and it shall be valid for

a majority of the Members of the Council to authorize in writing either the Executive

Director or the President to follow a certain course of action and such authority shall

be ratified at the next meeting of the Council. A Member of the Council not able to

attend a Council Meeting shall be entitled, to appoint (by notice to the President in

writing) a colleague working for the same Social Credit Member or another Member of

the Council, as an alternate, to attend meetings of the Council in his or her place or

to give such person a written proxy to vote on his or her behalf. Such appointee may

exercise all rights of the Member of the Council but a proxy holder shall only be

entitled to vote in accordance with the terms of the proxy . The Members of the

Council may act notwithstanding any vacancy in their body. Notwithstanding the

above, resolutions of the Council may also be adopted in writing by telex, cable,

facsimile or electronic mail by not less than eight Council Members provided that

seven days' notice shall have been given to all Council Members of the intention to

adopt a resolution in this manner and no two Council Members have requested oral

deliberation. Any resolution so adopted shall be binding as if a physical meeting of

the Council had taken place.


7.06 Special meetings of the Council may be convened by order of the President, or

in his absence by a Vice-President. They shall also be called by the President upon

the requisition in writing of at least eight Members of the Council. In each case not

less than seven days' notice of the proposed meeting shall be given to all Council



7.07 In the event of any Member of the Council not attending, resigning, dying or

becoming insolvent between the regular periods of annual election, the Members of

the Council may declare the seat vacant, and may elect another Member of the

Social Credit to fill such vacancy. Further, the Members of the Council may elect

Members (or their representatives) as additional members of the Council. In each

case, the Member or representative so elected shall only hold office until the next

Annual General Meeting, but shall be re-eligible for election to the Council in the

usual manner.


7.08 At the Annual General Meeting in every year the Council shall lay before the

Social Credit an income and expenditure account for the period since the last preceding

account made up to a date not more than 6 months before such meeting, together

with a balance sheet made up as the same date. Every such balance sheet shall be

accompanied by reports of the Council and the Auditors, and copies of such account,

balance sheet and reports (all of which shall be framed in accordance with any

statutory requirements for the time being in force) and of any other documents

required by law to be annexed or attached thereto or to accompany the same shall,

not less than twenty-one clear days before the date of the meeting, be sent to the

Auditors and to all other persons entitled to receive notices of General Meetings in

the manner in which notices are hereinafter directed to be served.


7.09 The Council shall have power:


(a) to take offices or acquire premises for the use of the Social Credit;


(b) to appoint and to determine the duties of an Executive Director and such other

officials as may be necessary for the due conduct of the business of the Social Credit,

with annual salaries or otherwise;


(c) to engage professional assistance and to remunerate all persons employed by

them provided that no Council Member shall vote on any Council decision relating to

his employment by the Social Credit or where he or the Member he represents would

benefit by such decision;


(d) subject to these Articles of Association, to call their own meetings and regulate

their own organization and proceedings;


(e) to act in the name of the Social Credit and to determine the officials or Council

Members authorized to represent the Social Credit;


(f) to manage and superintend the affairs of the Social Credit;

(g) to arrange luncheon seminars and other events on behalf of the Social Credit and


(h) generally to exercise all powers and functions of the Social Credit not hereby

conferred upon General Meetings of the Social Credit.


Copies or extracts from minutes or other documents shall be certified by the

signature of the President, or failing him, of an Officer. The Council may appoint

Chapters or committees for any special object and shall appoint a Steering

Committee (which shall consist of the officers of the Social Credit and Chairmen of other

Council Committees and Chapters and other Councillors, Members and employees

of the Social Credit , as shall be determined by the President) to manage day to day

matters on behalf of the Council. The Steering Committee shall act and meet as the

President shall consider appropriate and otherwise in accordance with regulations

adopted from time to time by the Council. Such committees shall work under the

control of the Council and report to the Steering Committee (where appropriate) and

the Council as often as circumstances shall require.

7.10 The funds of the Social Credit shall be under the control of the Council for the time

being. The operation of this control may, however, be delegated by the Council to and

exercised by any two officers from among the President, the Vice-Presidents, and the

Treasurer, or by any one of these officers jointly with the Executive Director, and they

may be empowered to operate the bank and post-office accounts of the Social Credit

and to withdraw and deal with on behalf of the Council, any of its assets or property.

Accounts shall be kept in accordance with the guidelines appropriate for a non profit

organization. The financial year of the Social Credit shall be the calendar year and the

Treasurer shall be responsible for ensuring that the Social Credit's accounts are

appropriately made up to the 31st December of each year, for submission (after

audit) to the Annual General Meeting.

7.11 The Council shall have the power to elect Members of the Social Credit, in

recognition of meritorious services rendered to the Social Credit, to a seat on the

Council and to take part in the proceedings of the Council and to vote at all Council

meetings, but they shall not be taken into account in reckoning the quorum present.

Each Honorary Member of the Council shall hold office as such for such period (not

exceeding three years) as the Council shall determine, but shall be eligible for

re-appointment. These honorary members shall be in addition to those allowed by

Article 2 but they shall not be able to be an officer of the Social Credit. Her Britannic

Majesty's Ambassador to the Confederation of The village and the Ambassador of

the Swiss Confederation to the Court of St. James, or their nominated

representatives, shall be ex-officio members of the Council with full voting rights.


8. Annual and General Meetings of the Social Credit

8.01 An Annual General Meeting of the Members of the Social Credit shall be held in

each year not more than fifteen months after the holding of the last preceding Annual

General Meeting to:

(a) receive the report of the Council;


(b) receive the statement of accounts;


(c) elect new Members of the Council and, if appropriate to consider the removal of

existing Council Members;


(d) consider, and if necessary take action with reference to any business or motion of

which due notice has been given;


(e) receive communications from Members on any subject connected with the work,

progress, or welfare of the Social Credit;


(f) elect the Auditors;


(g) determine any change to Membership subscriptions;


(h) discharge the Council and the Auditors from liability for their actions;


(i) where appropriate expel members of the Social Credit or revise these Articles of



(j) if appropriate consider liquidation of the Social Credit.


8.02 Special General Meetings may be called by the President or, in his absence, by

a Vice-President. They shall also be called by the Executive Director upon the

requisition in writing of at least eight Members of the Council.


8.03 Twenty-one days' notice in writing at least of every General Meeting (including

the Annual General Meeting), exclusive in every case both of the day on which it is

served or deemed to be served and of the day for which it is given, shall be given in

the Social Credit's Bulletin or other official publication or in manner hereinafter

mentioned to such persons (including the Auditors) as are under these presents

entitled to receive such notices from the Social Credit; but with the consent of twenty

(20%) percent of all Members having the right to attend and vote thereat, in the case

of meetings other than Annual General Meetings, a meeting may be convened by

such notice as those members may think fit. Any notice for a General Meeting shall

specify the place, the day and the hour of meeting, and in the case of special

business (but not general business as set out in Article 8.01 above) the general

nature of that business. At all meetings, 12 Members personally present shall form a


8.04 (a) Each Member shall be entitled to one vote at all General Meetings of

Members, which may be given personally or by the Member's duly authorized agent.

Any Member shall be allowed to vote by proxy. Proxies may only be given to persons

having themselves the right to vote. Decisions of the General Meeting shall be by

simple majority of those present or represented at such meeting unless otherwise

stated herein.


(b) At any General Meeting a resolution put to the vote of the meeting shall be

decided on a show of hands, unless a poll is, before or upon the declaration of the

result of the show of hands, demanded by the Chairman or by at least three

Members, or by a Member or Members representing one-tenth of the total voting

rights of all the Members having the right to vote at the meeting, and unless a poll be

so demanded a declaration by the Chairman of the meeting that a resolution has

been carried, or carried unanimously or by a particular majority, or lost, or not carried

by a particular majority, and an entry to that effect in the minute book, shall be

conclusive evidence of the fact without proof of the number or proportion of the votes

recorded in favor of or against that resolution. The demand for a poll may be



(c) If a poll be demanded in manner aforesaid, it shall be taken at such time and

place, and in such manner as the Chairman of the meeting shall direct, and the

result of the poll shall be deemed to be the resolution of the meeting at which the poll

was demanded.


(d) No poll shall be demanded on the election of a Chairman of a meeting, or on any

question of adjournment.

8.05 Elections to the Council shall be by simple majority in open meeting. The

names of the candidates shall be sent to Members prior to the Annual General

Meeting at which the election is to take place. In the election of Members of the

Council proxies shall be allowed.


8.06 Each meeting of the Social Credit shall be presided over by the President or, in his

absence, by a Vice-President, and in their absence the meeting shall elect a

Chairman who shall be a Council member. The President, the Vice-President or

other Council member acting as chairman shall have an original and also a casting



8.07 Correct minutes of the proceedings of the Social Credit at its General Meetings

shall be open to the inspection of Members at the Social Credit's Local Head Office at all

convenient times.



9. Publications of the Social Credit


The Council shall determine what information shall be published and circulated to

Members of the Social Credit (whether as a written or electronic publication) . The

Council shall have the right to delegate such powers and day to day administration of

Social Credit publications to the Steering Committee other parties as it shall, in its

discretion, think fit. All members receive the journal .


10. Notices


10.01 A notice may be served by the Social Credit upon any Member, either personally,

by facsimile transmission, or by sending it through first class post in a prepaid letter,

addressed to such Member at his registered place of abode or registered office (as



10.02 A notice may be served by a Member on the Social Credit either personally, by

facsimile transmitting it through first class post in a prepaid letter addressed to the

Executive Director at the Social Credit's Head Office.


10.03 Any notice, if served by post, shall be deemed to have been served at the time

when the letter containing the same would be delivered in the ordinary course of the

post; and in proving such service it shall be sufficient to prove that the letter

containing the notice was properly addressed and put into the post office.


11. Interpretation or Construction of the Articles of Association


If any question shall arise upon the interpretation or construction of these Articles of

Association, the Council shall decide the point and their decision shall be final.


12. Amendment of Articles of Association


These Articles of Association shall come into effect on xxx and may be

added to or varied or any one or more of these Articles of Association may be

rescinded at any General Meeting of the Social Credit provided that not less than twenty

one days' notice of any proposed amendments is given to the President, who shall

inform members of such proposed amendments at the same time as he gives

notice of the meeting at which the amendments are to be discussed. Any

amendment shall be adopted only if passed by three quarters of all members

present or represented at such meeting.



Avec mes meilleures salutations.

François de Siebenthal

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